• Semicolons
    Sentence; Sentence
    Rule 1: Between the period (.) and the comma (,) lies the semicolon (;). A semicolons link independent clauses with similar ideas and you do not use a coordinating (FANBOY) conjunction.
    Quarts is the most common mineral found in the world; ordinary sand is made up mostly of quartz.
    His mother will not allow him; she is afraid that he will get hurt.

    Rule 2: It joins two independent clauses when the clauses are connected by a conjunctive adverb like however, therefore, as a result, for example, etc. For more conjunctive adverbs, please click here.
    John was tired after a long and productive day at school; therefore, he took a nap.
    Leon's apartment complex does not allow dogs over thirty pounds; otherwise, he would have bought the gangly Great Dane puppy playing in the pet store window.
    The cat ate a bowlful of tuna; then, to the squirrels' delight, the fat feline fell asleep in the rocking chair.

    Rule 3: Separating items in a series when those items contain commas.
    Example: I lived in Paris, France; Deluth, Minnesota; and New Orleans, Louisiana.
    Note: If we did not use the semicolon, it would seem like I lived in five different places.

    The Colon

    Rule 1: Use a colon (:) to introduce a list or series of items.    

      You should have the following books and supplies with you on the first day of class: Roget's Thesaurus, two pencils, a dictionary, and two notebooks.
      These are the eight parts of speech: noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.

    Rule 2: Use a colon after the salutation of a business letter. 
               Dear Sirs:
      Dear Madam:

    Rule 3: Use a colon between the hour and the minute of time.

      It is now 4:22.
      The train is due here at 5:08.