• Multiplication Tables

Chapter 4 continues to build on the basic meaning of equal groups of multiplication and division.In Grade 2, they were taught about multiplication as the addition of equal groups, and division as sharing equally. Students will review thier multiplication facts for 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10. Students will build on these concepts for the facts 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, and 12.  They ahve also learned that multiplication and division are inverse operations.  So, division can be used to find a missing factor.  The missing number in the number sentence 2 x __ = 8 is the answer to 8 divided by 2.

Both multiplication and division are associated with the part-whole concept.  Given the number of equal parts and number in each part (its value), we can multiply to find the whole (total).  In this chapter, the conceptual links between multiplication and division are strengthened as students learn the two meanings for division situations: sharing and grouping.  In sharing, students divide to find the number of items in each group.  The total amount is shared equally into a given number of groups.  Students have to divide the total amount to find the items in each group.  In grouping, students divide to make equal groups.  The total amount is given and the number of items in each group is known.  Students will divide the total by the number of items to find the value of each group.

Students will use the the knowledge gained in this chapter to multiply 2-digit numbers by 1-digit numbers using models in the next chapter, and solving complex real-world problems in Chapter 6.  As students work through Chapter 4, we will encourage them to keep practicing both their division and multiplication facts.  This will serve as a foundation for multiplication and division concepts in Grades 4 and 5.

Chapter 4 has three main areas of focus:

• Multiplication Facts
• Multiplication Patterns
• Dividing using Mutlipcation Facts