• Our study of the ancient world begins with a look at the roots of human life and the beginning of civilizations. Many scientist believe that the earliest ancestors of humans first appeared in eastern Africa. Scientists have studied fossils and bones left by these early humans. This evidence has led scientists to believe that five major groups of early humans developed over millions of years. Over time, these early people learned to grow crops. The first human settlements grew in regions where people found the resources they needed to survive.

Chapter 1

  • Chapter 1: Investigating the Past



    Students will learn how social scientists reconstruct the lives of prehistoric humans by examining images of cave paintings and other artifacts.


    Students Will Be Able To…

    ·         explain how social scientists such as archaeologists, historians, and geographers investigate the past.

    ·         hypothesize about the lives of prehistoric humans and compare ideas with those of social scientists.

    ·         interpret a cave painting by suing the methodology of social scientists.

    Key Terms

    o   archeologist

    o   historian

    o   geographer

    o   artifact

    o   prehistoric

    o   ritual

Chapter 2

  • Chapter 2: Early Hominids



    Students will learn about the physical and cultural development of early hominid groups. Students analyze images of various hominid groups and explore how physical and cultural adaptations gave later hominid groups advantage over earlier groups.



    Students Will Be Able To…

    · identify when and where various hominid groups lived.

    · describe the physical and cultural adaptations of each hominid group.

    · analyze how the capabilities of each hominid group – development of tools, use of fire, and living in groups – helped them survive

    Key Terms

    o anthropologist

    o hominid

    o capability

    o migrate

Chapter 3

  • Chapter 3: From Hunters and Gatherers to Farmers

    How did the development of agriculture change daily life in the Neolithic Age?



    Students will learn how the Neolithic development of agriculture led to a stable food supply, permanent shelters, larger communities, specialized jobs, and trade.



    Students Will Be Able To…

    · identify Neolithic settlements and explain the reason for their location.

    · compare the lives of hunters and gatherers during the Paleolithic Age with the lives of people during the Neolithic Age.

    · explain how the domestication of plants and animals created a stable food supply and led to important changes in shelter, communities, jobs, and trade.

    Key Terms

    o Paleolithic Age

    o Neolithic Age

    o Fertile Crescent

    o Catal Hoyuk

    o domesticate

    o agriculture

    o nomad

    o trade

    o resource

Chapter 4

  • Chapter 4: The Rise of Sumerian City-States

    How did geographic challenges lead to the rise of city-states in Mesopotamia?



    Students will learn how responses to geographic challenges resulted in the formation of complex Sumerian city-states.



    Students Will Be Able To…

    · describe the location and physical setting of Mesopotamia, including the Tigris and Euphrates river system.

    ·   analyze geographic problems affecting ancient Mesopotamians and evaluate potential solutions.

    ·   describe how Mesopotamians modified their physical environment to solve geographic problems.

    ·   explain how the development of agricultural techniques, such as irrigation systems, led to the emergence of Sumerian city-states.

    Key Terms

    o Mesopotamia

    o Tigris River

    o Euphrates River

    o Sumer

    o irrigation

    o levee

    o silt

    o city-state

Chapter 5

  • Chapter 5: Ancient Sumer

    Why do historians classify ancient Sumer as a civilization?



    Students will learn about the characteristics of civilization and analyze artifacts to determine how each characteristic was exhibited in ancient Sumer.



    Students Will Be Able To…

    · analyze artifacts from ancient Sumer and explain how they are examples of the characteristics of civilization.

    · identify agricultural inventions that allowed Sumerian city-states to create a stable food supply and a complex society.

    · explain the relationship between religion and the social and political order in Sumer.

    · explain the evolution of Sumerian written language, from pictographs to cuneiform.

    · apply the characteristics of civilization to modern-day society.


    Key Terms

    o civilization

    o social structure

    o technology

    o merchant

    o artisan

    o scribe

    o ziggurat

    o culture

    o cuneiform

    o pictograph

Hominid Project